Before 1741, the year Vitus Bering 'discovered' Alaska, it has been estimated by historians that the Aleut population was at least at about 16,000 people. When the Siberian Russians first visited the islands they were first likely to have been, in the more populous areas, greeted by a number of Aleuts in their one, two or three-man kayaks, sometimes offering gifts as a show of friendship or for gift-exchanging. When anchoring near the village shores, it is also likely that the visitor would wonder where the homes would be that they live in. They likely, in the summer, would see racks of drying salmon, the men building or repairing kayaks, while the women would be working on the village's daily subsistence catch, or tending to bead or ivory work or repairing or making skin coats or dress. The Aleut homes, as in the village south of the Bay of Islands off the western shores of Adak Island, were likely not directly visible, as the homes were semi-subterranean with their top sides all covered with earth and grass. Those homes were in some cases large enough to house as many as 40 to 50 people and had entrances from the roof. They were heated by Aleut oil lamps. The roof hatchways accommodated the ventilation in such a way to allow cooking inside the large semi-subterranean structures during foul or cold weather.

Aleut corporation With a short description of the Aleut culture, their homes, clothes, and some pics of Aleut people.

Aleut: People of the Aleutian Chain Natural resources, History and Culture, Social Equity & Environmental Justice.

Crossroads of Continents - Aleut Short story about the Aleut.

Cree Indians

Arctic Circle:The Crees of Northern Quebec The Crees of Northern Quebec.
Dene Indians

Innu Indians
Yoruba is the second largest language group in Africa, consisting of over 20 million people. The term 'Yoruba' encompasses about twenty-five separate groups, each one culturally different from the next. Islam, Christianity, and the 'traditional' Yoruba pantheon, the orisa, are all embraced in Yorubaland.

Innu Nation/Mamit Innuat WWW Site All kinds of information about the Innu Indians.
Inuit Indians

Inuit means people and is pronounced 'ee-new-eet'. The Inuit populated the northern part of Newfoundland, north of the Hamilton Inlet, and most of the arctic region. The Inuit traveled a great deal during the year seeking animals which were their sources of food, clothing, light, warmth and tools. Summer travel was either overland, on foot, or on the water using skin boats. For winter transportation, a komatik, a large sled pulled by a dog team, was used. Dogs were an extremely important part of the economy. The Inuit depended on them not only for transportation, but also for help in the hunt and as an emergency food supply.

Publications of the Newfoundland Museum - Inuit in Labrador

First Nations: Inuit, Arctic Peoples Links to sites with information about the Inuit.

Cape Dorset Inuit Art and Cultural Perspectives


Arctic reindeer pastoralists, the Yamal Nenets and Khants traveled great distances up and down the peninsula, moving from northern tundra pastures in summer to the more protected sub-Arctic taiga in winter. The culture and technology of the Nenets and Khants were well adapted to the nomad pastoralist life-style of this arctic environment. Traditional social institutions based on clan membership allowed them to share animals and food, unite and divide herds, and use all nearby resources. Religion and other cultural beliefs stressed respect for the land and its resources.

Russia's Native Northerners: The Nenets and Khanty
Paleo Eskimo

The term 'Palaeo Eskimo' literally means 'prehistoric Eskimo' and is used to distinguish these eastern arctic groups from modern Inuit, who are not their direct descendants.

Publications of the Newfoundland Museum - Paleoeskimo in Newfoundland and Labrador

Long before the Swedish, Finnish or even the Viking culture had developed, the Scandinavian peninsula was populated by the Saemieh (hereafter referred to as Sami). During the Viking Age -and later- in the Middle Ages, Sweden was only about a third of it's present size, the northern 2/3 of the country was populated by the Sami. Even though the Sami tales about the Stalo suggests that there was a long-lasting conflict with the Vikings. The Sami's also traded first with Vikings and later with travellers from northern Europe such as the Hansa. Animal hides and furs were the most common commodities that was traded for coins (often used as ornaments) and different kind of blades. The handicrafted Sami knifes developed its present form during this age.

An introduction to the Sami people Here, you'll find an overview of the native Sami art, culture, current issues, history plus a few pages of recent events presented from an indigenous perspective.

Samefolket, Juli 1997. Samefolket covers political and cultural issues in all the Sami core area, including Russia.

The Saami - people of the sun and wind Site with information about the Saami people and their country and the Saami parliament

The Sami of Far Northern Europe The Saami people of Norway, Sweden and Finland and lots of related topics.

Other Links
Arctic Circle Information about the indigenous people of the arctic and sub-arctic.